Verbs and argument structure

Verbs can have between 0 and 3 argument places.

Arguments follow their verb and are supplied from left to right in ascending order.

Verbs are variadic. This means that they can take a variable number of arguments. The number of arguments a predicate takes is called its arity. A Toaq verb is really a family of related verbs which differ by their arity. Each arity can have a slightly different meaning.

Nullary predicates don’t involve any explicit participants. They express that an action or state is going on.


While English distinguishes between verbs, nouns and adjectives on a lexical level, Toaq unites all of these under a single part of speech: verbs. The equivalent of the English noun “table“ is a verb toqfua “to be a table”. The English adjective “large“ is rendered as the verb sao “to be large“.

The following examples illustrate this unification further. Note the parallel structure:

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