In Toaq, numbers are verbs. In their most basic function, they express the numerosity of their argument. Their place structure follows this pattern:

Num “___ are Num in number"

For example, the word shı “one“ means “to be one in number“, the word gu means “to be two in number”, and so forth:

The following table lists the numbers from 1 to 1000.

1 shı
2 gu
3 saq
4 jo
5 fe
7 dıaı
8 roaı
9 neı
10 heı
20 guheı
30 saqheı
100 fue
200 gufue
300 saqfue
1000 bıq

Numbers are put together from left to right, like this:

31 saqheı shı “three-ten one”

452 jofue feheı gu “four-hundred five-ten two“

8564 roaıbıq fefue cıheı jo “eight-thousand five-hundred six-ten four”

(N.B. These constructions are neither serial verbs nor genitival or adjectival constructions. Number verbs are their own class of verbs whose behavior is optimized for number-related expressions.)

A few more examples of expressing numerosity:

Numbers as modifiers of generic verbs

Generic verbs include everything that isn’t a measurement verb, i.e. one expressing an abstract quantity. Modifying these verbs with a number has the expected behavior:

The modifying number is considered a single unit for the purpose of grouping.

Numbers as modifiers of measurement verbs

Measurements involve verbs which refer abstractly to different units of measurement. The following table lists a few important units:

second sekuq
meter mety
gram garaq
°C keıcıu

These verbs refer abstractly to amounts measured in their respective units. For example, sekuq “to be a second”, gu sẻkuq “to be two seconds”.

These expressions are then used as arguments of verbs that select for units, such as “to last for [time]”.

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