In Toaq, numbers are verbs. In their most basic function, they express the numerosity of their argument. Their place structure follows this pattern:
|Num||“___ are Num in number"|
For example, the word shı “one“ means “to be one in number“, the word gu means “to be two in number”, and so forth:
The following table lists the numbers from 1 to 1000.
Numbers are put together from left to right, like this:
31 saqheı shı “three-ten one”
452 jofue feheı gu “four-hundred five-ten two“
8564 roaıbıq fefue cıheı jo “eight-thousand five-hundred six-ten four”
(N.B. These constructions are neither serial verbs nor genitival or adjectival constructions. Number verbs are their own class of verbs whose behavior is optimized for number-related expressions.)
A few more examples of expressing numerosity:
Generic verbs include everything that isn’t a measurement verb, i.e. one expressing an abstract quantity. Modifying these verbs with a number has the expected behavior:
The modifying number is considered a single unit for the purpose of grouping.
Measurements involve verbs which refer abstractly to different units of measurement. The following table lists a few important units:
These verbs refer abstractly to amounts measured in their respective units. For example, sekuq “to be a second”, gu sẻkuq “to be two seconds”.
These expressions are then used as arguments of verbs that select for units, such as “to last for [time]”.