Modal verbs are used to discuss possible situations ("possible worlds") and make various kinds of conditional statements.

Toaq's modal verbs are based on the following grid:

Indicative Subjunctive
Necessity she ao
Possibility daı ea

Each modality type (necessity vs possibility) comes in two forms: indicative and subjunctive.

The general place structure pattern of modal verbs is as follows:

monadic → ___ is [modal]-ly the case.
dyadic → ___ is [modal]-ly the case in world(s) where ___ is the case.

Thanks to their place structure, Toaq’s modals can be used to express bare (unrestricted) modal claims and subjunctives by using the monadic meaning, or to express a (restricted) conditional statement by using the dyadic meaning via a prepositional construction ( tone).


With indicative predicates we make claims about the actual (current) world. We increment our stock of knowledge hypothetically with the antecedent and then evaluate on that basis the consequent.




The subjunctive verbs are counterfactual, i.e., the antecedent is contrary to the facts of the current world. They make claims about alternative universes, ones in which the antecedent holds.



Every modal verb can also be used without the restrictor phrase. Usually, this will mean using it as the head of the verbal complex. An unrestricted ao corresponds to a bare "if"-less would-sentence in English, for example:

Previous section Next section