These particles specify the illocutionary force of an utterance. They tell you whether a sentence is an assertion, a command, a question, and so on.

Illocution markers unambiguously mark the end of a sentence.

Illocution Default With
da assertive explanatory
ka performative
moq interrogative rhetorical interrogative
ba optative
nha promissive
shou permissive
zay warning

da is the default illocution. It is implied when no overt illocution marker is present. Its communicative purpose is to mark a sentence as an assertion.

If da carries the tone, its meaning is slightly altered to an explanation for something, for example when answering a question like “Why aren’t you working on your project?”:

If da is left implicit, then, in order to avoid sentence boundary ambiguities, the following sentence has to begin with a sentence connector or with an overt matrix clause complementizer.

Performative statements with ka are true by virtue of being uttered. Common examples are apologies, greetings, and pronouncements.

The interrogative illocution moq is used to form questions. The questions can be polar questions (yes-no questions, i.e. sentences with a mả complementizer):

or wh-questions (sentences with one or more in the matrix clause):

With the tone, moq turns into a rhetorical question:

The optative illocution ba expresses wishes, hopes and general purpose imperatives (third-person imperatives).

The promissive illocution nha is used for promises and threats:

The permissive illocution shou is used to grant permission or make offers:

The zay illocution expresses warnings by providing information the listener should heed.:

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