Expressive interjections are vocal gestures that are indicative of the speaker’s mental state.


Emotive interjections express emotions and sensations of the speaker.

ıfu disgust, “eww”
aja happiness, “yay”
ahı pain, “ouch”
ume pleasure
ufu relief, “phew”


Congnitive interjections express the state of knowledge and thoughts of the speaker.

discovery, “aha”
ua “wow”
obe surprise, “oh”
upa “oops”, admitting a minor mistake
buz(y) “dunno”
oaı “uh-oh”, concern or realization of a problem
ubaı “alas”


Conative interjections are directed at another person. They are aimed at getting someone’s attention or they demand an action or response from someone.

enı “here”, “take this, look at this”
aıba “c'mon”, “let's go” (encouraging, hurrying)
obe surprise, “oh”


Phatic interjections are used in the establishment and maintenance of communicative contact. They express one's attitude towards ongoing discourse and are used in various interactional routines.

é “huh?”, “what?”, “come again?”
nho “yes”
jadı “hi”, “hello”
kıjı “thanks”

Where applicable, an interjection can be pronounced with a rising intonation to inquire about the interlocutor’s mental state regarding the interjection. For instance, one might say áhı? “did that hurt?” after seeing the other person stub their toe.

More interjections are still developing organically as the language is being used more. This list is merely an incomplete snapshot and is expected to grow as time goes on.

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