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Chíetoaı kọshı – 1st Lesson

Ruqshua da. It’s raining.
Kéo choa da. But there is talking.
Rú hıaı da. And there is laughing.
De cháq da. It’s a beautiful day.


  1. ruqshua means “to rain”. It carries a falling tone , indicated by the absence of a tone mark.

  2. da, in the falling tone, marks a sentence as an assertion. It is always found at the end of a sentence. There are also other equivalent particles for questions and imperatives, which we will come across in future lessons.

  3. choa is another verb (“to utter a sound”). Again, it can be identified as such because it carries a falling tone . The word kéo (“but”), a conjunction, is in the rising tone, indicated by the acute accent on the é.

  4. The word (“and”), another conjunction, is again in the rising tone.

  5. This sentence literally means “The day is beautiful”. The verb is de “to be beautiful”. In Toaq, the verb comes first in a sentence, and is followed by the nouns.

  6. cháq means “the day”. It carries a rising tone . We will learn more about using this tone to make nouns in the next lesson.



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