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Toaq with Ease

Féko chỉetoaı – 5th Lesson

Sa chảq bı gỉ cháq da. Sa chảq bı hủı cháq da. Some days, they are good. Some days, they are bad.
Óe… Okay…
Bũ tu chảq bı gỉ cháq da. Keo tu chảq bı pảq sa gỉ cháq da. Not every day is good. But every day has something good in it (every day is such that something good is part of it).
Mả nỏaq súq sa kủe moq? Did you read a book?
Sa kủe bı nỏaq há kúe da. Sa kủe bı chỏ há kúe da. Keo sa kủe bı … Ẻ, fả súq hı rảı moq? Some books, you read them. Some books, you enjoy them. But some books… Hey, where are you going?


  1. We now revisit the subject of sa and tu. In this sentence, we see sa chảq, which means “a/some day(s)”. In general, to interpret sa [verb], think “a/some thing(s) which is/are or do/does the thing described by the verb”. sa chảq “some things which are days”, or simply “some days”.

  2. The structure of this sentence differs from all the ones we have seen so far: there is a noun in front of the verb, and there is a strange before the verb. The two phenomena are closely connected. By using the particle , it becomes possible to place nouns in front of the verb. This can be done for different reasons. In the present situation, the noun sa chảq “some days”, followed by , is placed in front of the verb, and then a sentence of a familiar shape follows: a verb and a noun. The noun is cháq, the likes of which you have already met. In previous lessons, it was translated as “the day(s)”. When sa chảq “some days” was used earlier in the sentence, which is the case here, then any subsequent cháq refers to those same days. This is why the English translation of the sentence contains “they are good”. It could also have been translated as “Some days, those days are good”, or, more formally, “Some days are such that they (those days) are good”. We will see many repetitions of this pattern throughout this lesson.

  3. means “not”. For now, absorb the word as is.

  4. Here is the same sentence pattern but with tu, “every”, instead. Interpreting tu [verb] works exactly like the sa counterpart, except that instead of “some”, we have “every”. Thus, tu [verb] means “everything which is or does the thing described by the verb”. In the case of tu chảq, this gives us “everything which is a day”, or, more simply, “every day”. As before, the subsequent occurence of cháq refers to the same days.

  5. The pattern mả … moq is used to form yes-no questions. The moq indicates that we’re dealing with a question, much like da indicates that we’re dealing with an assertion. The past tense in this sentence is only implied. We will see how to express tense explicitly in a future lesson.

  6. , “one” or “you”, is a generic impersonal pronoun. It is used to refer generically to a person or people, as in “One does not simply walk into Mordor”. Like every other pronoun in Toaq, it is gender-neutral.

  7. hı rảı means “what” or “which thing(s)”. Here, it appears as the second noun of the verb fả, “to go (somewhere)”, which is the destination. The literal meaning of “You go what?” should therefore be understood as “What is the destination of your going?”, or, more simply, “Where are you going?”.



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