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Toaq with Ease

Sáqko chỉetoaı – 3rd Lesson

Kủa ní da. This is a room.
Tỉ jí ru súq kúa da. Me and you are in (at) the room.
Nủo sa shỉ da. One is asleep.
Ru shỉe sa shỉ da. And one is awake.
Sủq núo da. The one who is asleep is you.
Ru jỉ shíe da. And the one who is awake is me.
Bảo níjuı da. This here is white.
Ru kỉa níjao da. And that there is red.
Pẻq báo da. The white thing is paper.
Ru rủa kía da. And the red thing is a flower.

Notes

  1. In the last lesson we learned that there are many verbs in Toaq that would be nouns in English. kủa “to be a room” is another such word. Actually, the truth is that every word in Toaq is a verb (unless it is a function word, such as da or ru). We will see a more technical explanation of this in Lesson 7.

  2. tỉ means “to be at a place”, “to be present at” and can be used any time two things exhibit spatial overlap. nỉe “to be inside something” would be more specific.

  3. Now we see kua again, but this time with a rising tone . While kủa means “to be a room”, kúa means “the room(s)” (singular or plural not specified). The transformation from the verb meaning to the noun meaning follows a regular pattern: When applying a rising tone to a verb, the resulting expression refers to things that are or do the thing described by the verb. The meaning of kủa is “to be a room”, so kúa must refer to something which “is a room” – ergo, a room or rooms.

  4. For now, remember sa shỉ “one”, “someone”, “something” as is.

  5. sủq is the base form of the pronoun súq (“you”) we encountered in line 2. Maybe you already guessed its meaning: “to be you”. Yes, even the pronouns are verbs in Toaq. By applying the rising tone to the verb sủq, we get a noun that refers to something which is or does the thing described by the verb, here something which “is you”, i.e., “you”. The same goes for the noun núo, which refers to “someone who sleeps”.

  6. By now you can probably guess that jỉ has to mean “to be me”.

  7. níjuı “this (thing) here”, “these (things) here” and níjao “that (thing) there”, “those (things) there” are more precise forms of “this/that”, which you are already familiar with. Note that these words can be used with objects and people alike, without being impolite.

  8. And one more time, báo with a rising tone refers to something which is or does the thing described by the verb “to be white”, therefore it refers to something which is white – it means “the white thing(s)”. And analogously: kía “the red thing(s)”.

Exercises

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